Rug Weaving Looms
A loom is just a device to maintain the correct yarn tension and provide a way to separate the warps so a weft can be passed through.
The simplest form of loom is horizontal. Easy to assemble or move the horizontal loom is ideal for nomadic people as it can be staked to the ground or supported at ground level and then tensioned with wedges. Rugs made on horizontal looms are generally smaller and of a lesser quality than those woven on a standing loom.
Vertical or Standing Looms
Generally, a vertical loom produces more accurate rugs than a horizontal one. Being bigger, a vertical loom is much harder to transport so they are normally used in just the one place. As well as producing more accurate designs, the vertical loom has no limit to the length of rug that can be woven.
Fixed Village Loom
Used mainly in Iran, the fixed village loom comprises a fixed upper beam with a moveable lower beam which slots into two sidepieces. Driving wedges into the slots creates the correct tension and weavers work on an adjustable plank, raising it as work progresses.
The Tabriz Loom
Named after the city of Tabriz in North West Iran. Continuous warps pass right around, behind the loom and tension is adjusted with wedges. The weaver's seat is fixed and, as each part of a carpet is completed, the tension is released so the carpet can be pulled down and rolled around the back of the loom. The process is repeated until the rug is completed, when the warps are cut and the carpet removed from the loom.
The Roller Beam Loom
A traditional Turkish village loom that's also used in Iran and India. Warps are attached to two movable beams which are fitted with locking devices with the completed rug being being rolled on to the lower beam.