Most handmade rugs are woven using one of two basic knots: the symmetrical Turkish (or Ghiordes knot) and the asymmetrical Persian (or Senneh) knot.
Broadly-speaking, the Turkish knot is used in Turkey,Turkmenistan and some Turkish and Kurdish areas of Iran, while the Persian knot is more likely to be used in Iran, India, Egypt, China or Pakistan.
For a Turkish Lnot: pass the yarn between two adjacent warps, wrap each end round one of warps and then pull the ends back between the two warps to create a beautiful symmetry.
The Persian Knot creates a finer weave: wrap the yarn round one warp, pass it behind the adjacent warp and bring it back to the surface. Patterns are enhanced by opening the knot to the left or right,
Amongst other knots in use is the Jufti Knot (or false knot) which is tied around four warps. Jufti knots come in both Persian and Turkish varieties and it's quite common, with certain rug types, to find juftis inter-mingled with regular knots as a rug made entirely with jufti knots uses only half the yarn of a regular rug.